multiprogramming operating system

Posted under Tech Topics On By mohammed.mutawe

operating systems

The operating system is the software that contains a set of automatic and manual commands capable of managing the device’s resources from the ground up. It is considered the interactive mediator between the user and the device concerned.


If we assume the role of operating systems in a computer, you will find that they are the ones that allocate and manage computer resources in an archival and routine manner, such as:

  • Memory and hard disk management.
  • Access to devices attached to the hardware.
  • Control the input and output system of the computer IO.
  • Files management.
  • Wide and limited network management.


Operating systems work on a fixed algorithm that works repetitively in all versions of operating system companies, and the size of those algorithms is increased based on the manufacturer’s need and attached to new chips inside the hardware.

We will mention the most important components of the kernel of operating systems in a simplified conceptual manner.

Memory management

The memory is used in operating systems in an optimal way, to avoid wasting the space allocated to memory management, and thus it is allowed to run more files and programs that take up a fixed or temporary part of the memory.

The types of memory management within operating systems are:

  • Fixed Retail Memory Management: It is a feature of Retail Memory Management, which in turn works to divide the memory to a fixed size and accept the loading of different programs inside it.
  • Dynamic Memory Management: It is a feature of Dynamic Memory Management, which helps to reserve spaces in a ring without having empty volume spaces reserved within operating systems.

Processing management in operating systems



The processor is the central unit that is able to manage processing management in operating systems, and it is the main component that interprets the processes and processes the data inside the software, and it is the main router and the most important piece of hardware.


Process management in operating systems includes:

  • Memory Address Register: It is a convention that records the access identifiers of the memory from which data will be fetched.
  • Program Counter: It is an idiomatic expression for the Program Counter, which works on the sequence of instructions through computer jumps during processing and the transfer of memory sequences when imported with a new IP address.
  • Memory Buffer Register: This is a temporary reservation for instructions fetched from memory.
  • Instruction Register: It is an idiomatic expression for the Instruction Register, which is based on decoding instructions when fetching them from the cache to start executing them in arithmetic and logic.
  • Timer: It is a timer that generates and generates time.


Files management

File management is a method in operating systems that controls the process of recalling, retrieving and deleting data from memory, and reserving addresses and names for those files that are referenced when needed.

One of the basic concepts of file management system in operating systems

  • Space determination: It is a Spacing Management convention that determines the space and locations of files on a hard disk.
  • File names: which is based on reserving different file names to ensure that they are distinguished within the memory and that the records are not duplicated.
  • Directory: It is a convention Directory/Dir, which helps to sort groups and is named a folder.


Device management

Device Management: It is the ability to manage hardware resources in an integrated manner, such as IO input units, USB ports, or any external connection ports and control channels.

Device management can be divided into:

  • Block Device: It stores information in a single, independent and stable block such as disks.
  • Character Device: For example, managing printers and other craft devices.
  • Network Card: Take over the transmission of data packets.
  • Device Tracking: Keeps track of all devices within the IO system.


IO . management

IO system: It is a system that the user can deal with through the input and output units in the device and operating systems, as it is the closest to the user in the processing unit system.

Operating systems use basic modes to deal with IO:

  • polling.
  • programmer mode.
  • interrupt mode.
  • DMA mode.

Secondary storage management

Secondary storage/memory management: It is no less important and is considered part of operating systems management. It is the recording media that is used to save digital data, and it can be adopted as a storage hierarchy in operating systems, and works as a temporary storage factor within memory.


Safety management

The basic rule in the security of operating systems is to address security concerns in addition to implementing the required guarantees in protecting devices, and in order to enjoy all the characteristics of operating systems, security policies must be imposed that achieve a guaranteed use of all features within the devices.

Operating system threats come in the form of:

  • Malware.
  • Denied attacks.
  • network penetration.
  • Buffer overflow.


command line

Command line: It is a translator that serves specific programs that depend on it to execute some commands within operating systems, and it is controlled by the user and all operating systems are provided with command lines or the so-called Command Interpretation.



Network management and control has been provided in operating systems and is known since ancient times, and there is a necessity to use it. It is considered the gateway connected with other operating systems and other devices, and it works on sharing files, media and other shares across networks.


The most important operating systems available for the year 2021

  • Windows system.
  • Linux system.
  • Apple system
  • HAIKU system.
  • TAILS system.



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